Basavakalyan is a town in Bidar District of the state of Karnataka, India, and was historically known as Kalyani.
Basavakalyan’s history dates back to 3000 years with its name being mentioned in Guru Charitra.
Before India’s independence, Basavakalyan was called Kalyan. After independence and division of states on linguistic basis in 1956, Kalyana was renamed as BasavaKalyana in memory of Vishwaguru Basavanna, a great revolutionary who established Anubhava Mantapa (spiritual democracy) in 12th Century in India.
Basavakalyana was ruled by Western Chalukyas, Kalachuris, Yadavas of Devagiri, Bijapur Sultanate, Bahamani Sultanate (Bidar, Gulbarga), Mughals, Hyderabad Nizams.
It was the royal capital of the Western Chalukya (Kalyani Chalukyas) dynasty from 1050 to 1195. Somesvara I (1041-1068A.D.) made Kalyana as his capital, recognised as Kalyani Chalukyas to differentiate with Badami Chalukyas. Later ruled by Somesvara II, Vikramaditya VI, Somesvara III, Jagadhekamalla III and Tailapa III. Before this Manyakheta was their capital. During 10th-12th centuries ruled nearly half of India, most of the western Deccan, South India. King Vikramaditya VI had In his court scholars such as Someshwara, Bilhana (poet of Kashmir) and Vigyaneshwara (legal expert).
The earliest examples of the Kalyani Chalukya style are found at Kuknur. The Kalleshvara and Navalinga temples here bear resemblances to early Chalukya group of Aihole and Pattadkal. The Jaina temple at Lakkundi near Gadag forms the nest step in the improvement of this style introducing a greater ornamental effect in the treatment of the surface.
The Kalyani style of architecture reaches its maturity and culmination in the 12th century. Kasi Vishveshvara at Lakkundi, Mallikarjuna at Kuruvatti and Mahadeva Temple (Itagi) are the finest examples produced by the later Chalukya architects. The Saraswathi and Someshwara temples at Gadag are in a mutilated condition. There are nearly one hundred monuments of the period, scattered all over the Deccan, giving us information about the artistic excellence attained by the later Chalukyas of Kalyani.
Kalachuris succeeded Kalyani Chalukyas continued Kalyani as there capital. During 12th century the Kalachuri King Bijjala (1156-1167) assumed the throne, and Basaveshwara appointed as his Prime Minister. Basaveshwara led a social movement to stop untouchability and gender discrimination, Shivasharana revolution took place. Basaveshwara motivated many with the Vachana sahitya, and more than 600 people became writers called as Vachanakaras.
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